Sometimes, participation in social research will necessarily cause a participant to reflect on personal issues, bringing about emotional distress. Ethics apply to all aspects of personal and organizational practice and are therefore relevant to individuals, small firms, large corporations, government and non-government organizations, and to professions as a whole. Castellano 2004; Convention on Biological Diversity 2004; Persoon & Minter 2011). The triple bottom line and impact assessment: how do TBL, EIA, SIA, SEA and EMS relate to each other? This paper (i.e. Recognizing ethical issues – practitioners need to be aware of when and how ethical issues occur. The Australian national ethical research statement, for example, requires that its ethical principles be used in conjunction with any human research funded by any of the Australian government research funding agencies. For example, the IAIA can be evaluated against these criteria as follows: Criterion 1 – the IAIA has developed and actively promotes its ethical statement (see International Association for Impact Assessment 2009) and Code of Conduct (see Box 2) amongst its members. It involves acting in the right spirit, out of an abiding respect and concern for one’s fellow creatures. Some codes (e.g. The 1978 Report of the National Commission on the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (the Belmont Report) ( 3) articulates three principles for guiding ethical research with human participants: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. A marked shift has occurred in institutional codes of ethics, with the primary obligation to society and the proper conduct of data collection becoming replaced by an increased focus on obligations to research participants. it should be borne in mind that the best judges of whether an investigation will cause offence may be members of the population from which the participants in the research are to be drawn. While all principles potentially apply to SIA practice in general, there may be occasions when there is contradiction. Sociological Association of Aotearoa (New Zealand). The first principle listed above, respect for participants, would also imply respect for the individual and societal differences and beliefs of various peoples, and, for example, expecting that researchers/practitioners would not regard or treat everyone as being homogenous. An important dimension of this respect relates to ensuring the protection of persons with diminished autonomy, and those who are marginalized or vulnerable. If you are involved in research with human subjects, which federal agencies have oversight for your work? Rossouw (2002) provides a useful discussion of the various features requiring attention when organizations develop a code of ethics, including consideration of purpose, process, form, content and implementation. CODEX (website supported by the Swedish Research Council). While institutional research ethics committees have typically been associated with universities or government-funded research institutions, there is an increasing social expectation that the ethical principles and procedures will be applied regardless of the setting of the research. The ethical expectations surrounding professional practice have become more exacting, covering the mechanics of undertaking data collection for an impact assessment (i.e. Principles of conduct in professional practice are to be found in the Society's Code of Conduct and in the advisory documents prepared by the Divisions, Sections and Special Groups of the Society. Further details on the giving of advice will be found in the Society's Code of Conduct. Both sets of principles are tools for making reasoned judgement. Principle 11: Indigenous people involved in research, or who may be affected by research, should benefit from, and not be disadvantaged by, the research project. A specific application of this principle that is very relevant to impact assessment relates to Indigenous peoples. It would be desirable for the IAIA’s Code to be revamped, increasing the emphasis on respect for affected peoples in the conduct of impact assessment and including requirements about ‘informed consent’ (from the research ethics discourse), and perhaps even ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (from the Indigenous rights discourse). 2013) considers specifically how the ethical principles apply to SIA practice, drawing on the practice perspective of the authors. They are expected to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest (situations where they could personally benefit) and to be mindful of moral hazard (i.e. There is a suite of measures that can be undertaken to support ethical practice at the individual and organizational level (extracted/modified from Rossouw 2002), including: a participatory process for developing and reviewing a code of ethics for good practice; a commitment to communicating the code of ethics, regularly and in varied ways so that it is reinforced amongst practitioners; a commitment to ensuring that new practitioners become acquainted with the code; the provision of opportunities for the open discussion of ethical dilemmas and case studies; a commitment to the ongoing enforcement of the code by positive enforcement rewarding or acknowledging practitioners who behave in an exemplary fashion and by punishment of some kind for those who violate the code; an organizational procedure for addressing code violations and providing necessary support to monitor compliance; public commitment to the code, especially on the part of people who have high standing in the organization. One sphere relates to the ethics of academic social science enquiry. This becomes especially important for researchers working at universities or prisons, where students and inmates are often encouraged to … These include experiments on prisoners of war in German concentration camps in World War II, the … Principles for ethical research involvin .... Introduction: The need for competency in ethics, Professional practice and codes of ethics, Potential actions to improve the ethicality of professional practice, http://www.iaia.org/publications-resources/downloadable-publications.aspx, http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/research/docs/ethics.pdf, http://www.aaanet.org/profdev/ethics/upload/Statement-on-Ethics-Principles-of-Professional-Responsibility.pdf, http://www.planning.org/ethics/ethicalprinciples.htm, http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/principles.pdf, http://www.asanet.org/images/asa/docs/pdf/CodeofEthics.pdf, http://www.aag.org/cs/about_aag/governance/statement_of_professional_ethics, http://www.tasa.org.au/about-tasa/ethical-guidelines/, https://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/akwe-brochure-en.pdf, http://www.iaia.org/publicdocuments/special-publications/SP9%20Indigenous%20Peoples%20and%20Traditional%20Knowledge_web.pdf, http://www.esrc.ac.uk/about-esrc/information/research-ethics.aspx, http://www.iaia.org/publicdocuments/special-publications/fast-tips/Fastips_2%20Ethics.pdf, http://www.respectproject.org/code/index.php, http://www.iaia.org/publicdocuments/miscdocs/Code-of-Ethics.pdf, www.asph.org/UserFiles/EthicsCurriculum.pdf, http://www.legalaid.qld.gov.au/legalinformation/Pages/Dictionary.aspx, http://www.therai.org.uk/about-the-rai/governance/ethical-policy/, http://www.social-policy.org.uk/downloads/SPA_code_ethics_jan09.pdf, http://the-sra.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/ethics03.pdf, http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/ethics_guidance_tcm6-5782.pdf, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/471355a82.html, http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html. Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants This edition published in 1982 by American Psychological Association in Washington, D.C. (1200 17th St., N.W., Washington 20036). participants should not be exposed to risks greater than or additional to those encountered in their normal lifestyles. non-disclosure of information) should be accorded to all private or personal matters or views, or when any such undertaking is given. Enabling participation – Researchers have an ethical responsibility to ensure that all relevant individuals and groups are included in the research, and where they might ordinarily be excluded by reasons of language, access or cost to participate, that there be a genuine attempt to enable participation by providing appropriate means of access such as translation, transportation, or payments to offset the cost of attendance. It implies a respect for the personal lives of participants and that researchers should be cognizant of what is personal and private. It is important for practitioners to realize that Indigenous participation cannot be presumed or demanded. The Belmont Report includes three 'basic ethical principles' for judging the ethical treatment of human participants: Respect for persons : The personal dignity and autonomy of individuals must be recognised and there must be special protections for persons with … Any permission to use the codes must be sought from the individual organizations directly. people) and ‘informed consent’ are now the primary ethical principles. It is recognised that this may be difficult in certain observational or organisational settings, but nevertheless the investigator must attempt to ensure that participants (including children) know of their right to withdraw. Research ), Richardson ( 2005 ), Resnik ( 2008 ) a verbal description the! 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